A reserve or affirmative action system is not uncommon in the global community and is found in one way or another in most countries around the world, such as the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, held in 1969, argues that principles of equality sometimes oblige states to take positive measures to reduce or eliminate conditions that cause or contribute to perpetuating discrimination in society and as a such widespread in USA, UK, China, Canada, Brazil, Finland, Germany, Japan, Israel, Malaysia, Norway, Romania, New Zealand, South Korea, South Africa, Sweden , Sri Lanka and a host of others, however, what is unique is its base caste, although in general affirmative action refers to a set of policies and practices within a government or d ” an organization seeking to include particular groups based on their gender, race, sexuality, creed or nationality in areas where they are under-represented or under-represented, particularly in education and employment.
The nature and extent of reserves also vary from region to region and country to country, ranging from a strict quota to simple targeting of encouragement for increased participation. While in a quota system a certain percentage of government jobs, political posts and school vacations must be reserved for members of a certain group, in others the political system of the day stimulates and motivates non privileged to compete with others on merit and status, a concept accepted historically and globally to achieve goals such as bridging inequalities in employment and pay, increasing access to education and righting wrongs, prejudices or apparent obstacles from the past.
The Constitution Amendment Law passed in 2019, amending Articles 15 and 16 of the Indian Constitution and with reference to Article 143, provides for a 10% reserve in education and government employment in India for economically weaker sections (EWS). Thus, of the total government jobs under central and state governments, 59.50% were reserved, with a caste base for 49.50% while 10% for EWS, leaving only 40.50% of seats to assign to open merit.
In independent India, caste became the only reserve base because, historically, people were known as rigid social groups characterized by hereditary transmission of way of life, occupation and social status. Although it has its origin in ancient India, it continued in a transformed form during the Medieval, Mughal and British periods.
The oldest concept of Varna, which literally means type, order, or class, was largely a frame, first used in Indian Vedic society. He divided the whole company into four different parts based on the work done by them. traditionally as Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras.
At that time, the word “Jati”, which means “birth”, was heard the least despite the existence of thousands of jatis and wwa not universally applied due to the fact that the caste is more flexible and diverse than we are. often assume. Over the centuries, the caste became popular and was decided according to religion; ritual ranking existed within the jatis, however, an important role was also played by economics, politics, and geography, ultimately making it a loose framework.
In subsequent developments after the collapse of the Mughals and the rise of British colonial government, the term caste was popularized when the British began to make several concessions on caste-based rules. Earlier the fall of the Mughal period saw the rise of many powerful men who associated with kings, priests and ascetics asserting the royal and martial form of the caste ideal and this also transformed many groups. apparently caste-free social groups into differentiated caste communities. In the British Raj, too, the process of caste recasting continued, making the caste system more rigid in organizational form and a central mechanism of administration.
It flourished especially between 1860 and 1920, when the British formulated the caste system into the system of governance by primarily giving administrative jobs and senior positions to Christians and selected castes. When after the 1920s social unrest increased in proportion, they initiated the policy of affirmative action by reserving a certain percentage of government jobs for lower castes and after the country’s independence the reservation for castes and tribes listed was incorporated into the country’s constitution. making the First Amendment in 1951.
Thus, throughout the period, the Jatis have existed in India among Hindus, Muslims, Christians, and tribes with no clear linear order between them. Currently, there are four types of widespread reserves in India, three of which are caste based and the last is based on economic backwardness, for the Economically Weaker Section (EWS) having a 10 percent reserve passing the 103rd reserve. amendment, implemented in 2019.
Upon gaining independence, the first reservation instruction was issued on September 21, 1947, which provided for reserving 12.5 percent of vacancies for listed castes through an open competition and in d ‘others it was 16.2.3 percent while in another resolution of September 13, 1950, a five percent reservation was provided for the Listed Tribes. Again it has been revised in light of the census report which recorded their population at 14.64 percent and 6.80 percent respectively, the percentage of their reservation increased from 12.5 and 5 percent to 15 and 7.5 percent according to a notification issued March 25, 1970..
On the other hand, the other backward classes (OBCs) are described in the Constitution of India (Article 340) as socially and educationally backward classes which made up about 52% of the total population, as mentioned in the report. of the Mandal Commission of 1980 and are entitled to obtain 27 percent of bookings in public sector employment and higher education according to a Supreme Court of India ruling in 1992.
The list of CBOs is maintained by the Indian Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, but their number still fluctuates due to the inclusion and removal of certain castes and communities from time to time, however it is effective like the reservation of SC / ST, in any recruitment in public sector companies, both under central and state governments as well as in nationalized banks.
Another important development, the Constitutional Amendment Act passed in 2019, amending Articles 15 and 16 of the Indian Constitution and with reference to Article 143, provides for a 10 percent reserve in education and government employment. in India for the economically weaker sections (EWS). Thus, of the total government jobs under central and state governments, 59.50 percent were reserved, with a caste base for 49.50 percent while 10 percent for EWS, leaving only 40.50 percent for EWS. percent of seats to be awarded on open merit.